This section :presents several types of internal proposals. The examples that follow demonstrate ways to handle the assigned proposal and the unsolicited  proposal.

The Assigned Proposal
The model that begins reflects an assignment that a student completed during his internship at a company It has three parts introduction including a summary, a description of the actual system, and .in explanation how the proposed solution meets preset criteria.a table and a layout – reinforce the writer’s points.

In the introduction the author explains that he has been assigned the project. He also explains. what he did to become credible in the situation an-. briefly discusses his proposal. In the criteria and summary sections,  he notes that his solution will fulfill the five criteria that have been agreed upon for the situation. In the discussion section, or the body, the author describes the new machine and explains how it meets all the criteria, Notice how the author uses visual aids throughout to communicate his ideas.

This report is a response to your request for a proposal from the production department on ways to increase productivity at work station 128. After speaking with a number of staff members, I recommend adding another numerical control (NC) lathe to work station 128. The machine we have chosen is the Stamford MR 7000. This report covers two main.areas: a description of the new lathe and an
explanation of how it meets the criteria.

The following criteria were set at a meeting of the management group in March:

  • Total cost not to exceed $200,000
  • Payback period of one year
  • Productivity increased be 20% at work station 128
  • Vulnerability at work station 128 reduced
  • Implementation time of eight weeks

This report shows that the machine we propose to purchase will meet all the

  • Total.cost of adding another machine-is $182,000
    New lathe – $150,000.
    Additional hardware- $15,000
  • Cost of labor to install- $17,000..
  • Payback period of one year
  • Increase in productivity of 20% at work station 128
  • Reduced vulnerability
  • Implementation time of six weeks

The discussion segment’ of this report shows how the proposed solution will increase productivity at work station 128. This section describes the new Achernar and its advantages, discusses how the machine meets all five criteria and also explains why we rejected the other alternatives. The five criteria are spend in:) allowance, payback period, increase in productivity, reduced vulnerability and  implementation time.

The New NC Lathe Description of Machine, The new NC lathe recommended by the production department is the Stamford MR 7000. The machine Incapable of computerized numerical control (CNC) the operator can program an operation right at the machine location via a keyboard. It is a five-axis machine that handle the complex tooling required at work station 128. It has a turret-type 01 mount on either side of the bed ways. Each turret is capable of holding to tools, which
gives the machine Q total holding capacity of eight .

Advantages of New Lathe. The existing NC lathe does not have the capabilities of this new one, which might have more features than we need. But owing t”l the present technology and pressure from our competitors; we feel we are forced to buy a slightly overqualified machine. However, if future demand requires increased capability at work station 128, we will be able to handle it. If there is a need at any time for the R & D department to experiment with the tooling capabilities of this machine, they many do so after the second shift when the demand for time is not feet.

How the Solution Meets the Criteria Spelling Allowance. The spending allowance allocated for this project is $200,000. This figure covers everything from acquisition to implementation. The total cost to purchase and install a new NC lathe is $182,000 broken down as follows.

  • cost of new machine – $150,000
  • cost of additional hardware -.515,000
  • cost of labor to Install – $17~000

Explanation of Cost
” The cost of additional hardware needed for the installation of the lathe IS$15,000.
The hardware is needed to “marry” the new lathe to the existing one. The proposed
setup will allow one person to operate both lathes. Thus we will not need any additional labor The additional hardware needed consists of 20 feet of conveyor track, all new tooling required for the new lathe, and a new switching unit to alternate the  of machinable parts coming into the work station  The labor cost ‘required to install the additional hardware plus the new lathe is $17,000. This figure is based on a total of 720 hours of labor at $24 per hour (includes’benefits). We feel it would take a three-person crew a total of six weeks to install the new system. Tasks include hooking’ up the hydraulic and electrical systems, plus installing the actual hardware.



Work Station Layout
Period The payback period required by the criteria was one year. Because the new lathe will increase production at no additional labor cost, we feel t this one-year deadline The $182,000 cost of new machine is a fixed cost. Any additional costs w II be from maintenance  from the energy required to operate it. The sales rep  these costs at around $150 per month. The machine has a  one-year on parts and labor.If we achieve a 20% increase in productivity, and if all other costs presently incurred.by production increase at this same rate (which is unlikely), we can expect a 20% increase in net earnings from sales. Our present net earnings from this product line are $920,000 per year. The new machine, therefore, has the potential to increase our net earnings from $920,000 to $1,104,000 the first year, an Increase of $184,000. Thus the payback period for the new machine would be 52 weeks (see Figure 2). This 52-week figure does not take into account our tax deduction from interest and depreciation on capital goods. If these figures are taken into account, our payback would be even sooner.

Increase in Productivity
The 20% increase In productivity due to the addition of a lathe at work station
128 justifies the cost o’f the new machine. The increase in productivity parallels


Payback Period
an increase in net earnings of at least 20%. Our profit from the increased productivity would not be seen until after the machine has been paid for, as shown by Figure 2. After that  however, we wilt make a profit. The increase in productivity can be seen by the man machine chart. Note that the station stilt needs only one operator. .


Reduced Vulnerability
Because of its increase in productivity, work station 128 wilt be less vulnerable to slowing down production. Furthermore, having two machines is like having a ba  system. If one lathe breaks down, the other can still be producing parts,production would decrease.

Implementation Time
Implementation time, as set in the criteria, is eight weeks or less. We are confident
. that the total time required to purchase and install the lathe is six weeks. The vendor states a two-week delivery time. After the lathe is here, we would require an additional four weeks to install the machine and put it into operation.1

The Unsolicited Proposal
In the following proposal. a student is bringing a problem that he has  Periclean to till’ attention of the lab supervisors. He assumes that the  are of the problem. The proposal has an introductory section discussion, and two visual aids. Notice that the reader knows the proposed solution by the end of the second paragraph.  The introduction has .two sections. First, the writer explains the  his credibility he h,15 worked in the lab in the role of the person it was  for. Second, he names the problem, tells immediately how much the will cost. and  how his solution will answer the problem. In the body of the proposal, the writer outlines the problem in one section, his solution in the next and the method of implementation in the  last. He accompanies his proposal with two visual aids, one that depicts the new layout he proposes and the other a table of costs. Throughout the report, the writer anticipate questions and objections. He has obviously done his homework as demonstrated by ‘the layout and cost table. Unless a major difficulty arises from some other source, the solution could be implemented easily.

As a student who uses the software development computers in Roem 214, I see a problem with the arrangement of the computer terminals in the existing work area. This problem will be further magnified with the arrival of the new computer terminals expected for January 1990. The cost to implement a more efficient layout would be less than $60.
I suggest that the software development computers and their clustered computer terminals be arranged as shown in the following layout  This layout is designed to eliminate the existing problems of the inefficient arrangement of the computer terminals and blocked access to the printer.
The existing layout of the software development computers is very inefficient. During peak use of the development computers, only five out of the six terminals can be used. The computer terminal located in the corner of the work area is blocked off whenever people use the computer terminals on each side of it. If this computer terminal were used, people would be on top of each other an uncomfortable situation that discourages people from using it. I have heard fellow classmates and instructors Copland about all the terminals being in use when in  fact the terminal in the corner of the work area was free.With the existing layout, the printer location also creates a problem. The position of the printer now is just above one of the computer terminals. This location is very inconvenient for both the person using the computer terminal and the one using the printer. This inconvenience happens quite regularly because there is only one printer to service all the computer terminals. The problem with overcrowding will only worsen if the same arrangement is kept when the new computer terminals arrive.

To eliminate the problem of inefficient use of the computer area’, the enclosed plan for a new layout should be implemented. This layout includes the four new terminals that will be acquired by the university for January 1990. The area just to the right of the doorway is the proposed new work area, an area chosen because
fe w people sit there during class periods. This expanded area, along with the old area, will give ample room for the computer terminals. This layout will also.1

free space for the printer, making it more accessible and increasing the. amount
of paper that it can hold. This solution will also make the repair of main development computers easier.

Implementation concerns focus on cost, material, and labor.

Cost. The new less than $60. The only cost involved would  be for female and male computer cable connectors. A total of four female connectors and four male connectors would be needed to complete the proposed layout. comparison of computer connector costs from benders used by the university. The other materials needed. as described in the next section, will not cause any additional expense to the university since they come from materials the university already has on hand.

Material. The existing materials  the work area would be used – except for the work bench. The work bench would have to be removed and used elsewhere, perhaps to the electronic repair shop ( The long table for the new work area is presently stereo in the electronic repair shop; the five dividers can be obtained from the Electronics Department or from the university’s warehouse. The needed cable for the computer terminals is available in the electronic repair shop.

Labor. Student employees from the electronic repair shop can supply the labor. These students are very knowledgeable about how the software development computers function and would have no problems in implement the layout plans suggested in Figure 1. These students would also assemble the different
lengths of cables with the connectors that would be purchased .


Proposals convince the reader to allow the writer to solve a problem or perform some activity. External proposals arc used to convince one company to buy another company’s services or products. Written to respond to a client’s needs, external proposals explain the service or product offered in the technical section, review the firm’s credentials and abilities in the management section and list the costs in the financial section. Internal proposals report on assigned problems or on unsolicited solutions  problems. Usually such proposals attempt to answer four questions: What is the problem? What is the solution? Should we implement the solution (justification)? Can we implement the solution (implementation)? Writers of proposals must care consider the audience’s knowledge level and authority. A visual aid commonly found in proposals is the  chart, which illiterates the components of a schedule.


Who will receive this proposal? Who will decide on the recommendations in this proposal? How much do they know about the topic? Prepare background. Why did the proposal project come into existence? Select a format formal or informal, Prepare a style sheet of margins, headings, page numbers, and visual aid captions.o External Proposal  Write a statement of the customer’s needs. Prepare a matrix (2-column listing – see p. 294) of the customer’s needs and the features of your proposal, In the written sections, do you present your tea lures III terms 01
the customer’s needs – using the customer’s terminology? Are the financial details clearly explained? . Do you explain in detail why your   has the expertise to do the job? .[J Internal Proposal  Was the report assigned, or is it an unsolicited proposal? Outline your methodology for investigating the problem Decide lobe level of detail you will need to explain the problem. Prepare ‘:a list of the dimensions of the problem and show how your proposed solution eliminates each item (this list is the basis for your benefits section). Prepare a schedule for implementation. List rejected alternatives, and in one sentence tell why you rejected them.


A solicited proposal in an informal format follows:





1. Rewrite the following paragraph. The writer is a product designer; the  reader is the head of manufacturing. The proposal suggests the use of plastic as the casing material for a flashlight. The purpose of this section is to show that plastic meets the criterion of “availability.” Eliminate all unnecessary sentences .

One of the first things that many designers ask when initially considering the use of a particular material is whether the material is on hand. It is not wise to use a proprietary material that is available only from one supplier if it is likely that the product in question will be made again in five years. If you are a captive buyer, you are at the mercy of the supplier on cost and delivery. Sometimes a raw material fabrication technique may limit availability. As an example, it is not common to get delivery times of 60 weeks on special forgings. In lean times castings may be obtained in 4 weeks; other times delivery times can be 12 weeks. These are all important factors under the category of availability. I have checked with several potential plastic suppliers (AVW Plastics Inc. and Jasper Plastic Supply) within our area and they seem to be able to handle what our production demands, and they can deliver it when we desire. 2. Rewrite the following paragraphs. Use the two figures and the table as a basis for your discussion. The writer is an area supervisor who has

discovered the problem; the reader is the layout supervisor of the printing company. The,project is to produce guest checks for a restaurant by cutting the. checks from a large sheet of paper and then printing them. Your instructor might also assign you to write an introduction and summary to make this a brief informal report. Problem The problem with the present process is that it wastes paper. The cutoff on the printing press being used is permanently set at 17 inches. The problem gets worse when  he printed pages must be cut, perforated, padded, and then cut again. The first cuts are irregular (Figure 1), which means the paper cutter must be reset after each cut. After the cut you are left with four stacks of paper, which must be further processed as mentioned above.


Positioning the forms as indicated in g a 21-inch roll of paper instead of 22 inches will waste less paper (Table 1). Even though only 10 instead of 11 checks can be positioned on a page,this method wastes less paper and makes processing easier. Only one initial cut would be needed before perforating, padding, and final cutting. There would also be only two stacks to handle instead of the current four stacks.


The proposed process would maximize profits by reducing paper waste (Table 1). The changed layout would also reduce the time of further processing on the guest checks (Table 1). There would also be less wear and tear on the paper cutter since only one initial cut instead of four is needed.

3. Rewrite the following two sections. Use the two figures ..The writer is the departjncnt manager the reader is the merchandise manager. The writer has covered a need: the department should expand because its sales have exceeded all previous peaks. The background is that six months earlier the department added several brand name clothing lines. The new lines have drawn in more customers than expected.


Profits. Profits will increase dramatically with the new expansion of the department. Because of the additional brand-name clothing we implemented, our sales have shown a noticeable increase in the past year. With the added space, our sales volume could reach an additional profit. A new expansion of the twice the extra space to display more of the merchandise that is. selling. For example, the brand TUTA is a growing category. If, by chance, we can expand our line of TUTA merchandise, we can create what is known. as multiple purchases. Multiple purchases are defined as a customer buying an additional  item besides the intended purchase. For example, a customer may purchases TUTA shirt; however, on the way to the register, she notices a TUTA belt and the new merchandise. Our department willcarry, for example, TUTA pants, shirts, socks, belts, and hats. We will also carry such brand names as Tex,  Arrowhead, Zach’s, and  We will attract many customers who may  same age bracket, yet have different tastes (see  Each customer has her own unique taste; with the extended department of various vendors, we can please each one of them. Breaching other customers,  help to increase profits profits are a result of the additional new customers and their purchases.


1. Write a proposal in which you suggest a solution to a problem. Explain the problem and solution. Show how the solution meets established criteria or how it is beneficial in terms of the dimensions of the problem. Explain cost and implementation. J! necessary, describe the personnel who will carry out the proposal. Explain why you rejected other solutions. Use at least two visual aids in your text. Base the proposal on factual data and make it convincing. Your instructor will assign either an informal or a formal format. Topics for the assignment could include a problem that you have worked on (and perhaps solved) at a job or a problem that has arisen on campus, perhaps involving a student organization.