GUIDELINES FOR ORGANIZING CLEARLY
In addition to being familiar with guidelines for clear sentences and paragraphs, you should follow guidelines for clarifying your organization to your reader. These guidelines allow you to write readable documents that steer readers effortlessly through the topic. These strategies help almost all readers, especially those who are less knowledgeable or who are distant from the writer in the company structure. To clarify your organization:
Use context-setting introductions
Place important material first
Use preview lists
Use repetition and sequencing
Use structural parallelism
Use Context-Setting Introductions
Your introduction should supply an overall framework so that the reader can grasp the later details that explain and fill it. You can use an introduction to orient readers to the contents of the document in one of three ways: to define terms, to tell why you are writing, and to tell the document’s purpose .
You can include definitions of key terms and concepts, especially if you are describing a machine or a process.
Training is the process of preparing an individual to perform in a certain manner in a predictable situation. The training process has four steps: needs assessment, program development delivery and.evaluation.
Tell Why You Are Writing
Although you know why you are writing, the reader often does not. To orient the reader to your topic, mention the cause of your writing. This method works well in memos and business letters, The following is a good start:
At our recent committee meeting, you raised a number of questions about our new word processors. I couldn’t answer all your questions then, but I have checked with our computer personnel, and I can now provide you with the information you requested.
State the purpose of the document
The purpose of the document
means what the document will do for the reader. In the following oneparagraph
introduction, the last two sentences state the purpose.
Although adhesive bonding is a basic function of form filial seal (f/f/s) packaging, it
is usually the least understood element of the package. Adhesives playar vital
role in medical-device packaging today. They not only maintain package integrity
but also make possible the physical combining of a wide variety of protective
materials. In flffs packaging, adhesion must be achieved in line with a number of
other packaging operations, some of which are not always conducive to good
. seals. This article will discuss the role played by adhesives or sealants. It y .:’
characterize their behavior in different types of packages at various stages 01
package formation and use. (Marotta 12)
Place Important Material First
The beginning of a section or a paragraph is an emphatic .spot, Placing important material first emphasizes its importance. This strategy orients readers quickly and gives them a context so that they know what to look for as they read further. Put statements of significance, ‘definitions, and key terms at the beginning. The following two sentences, from the beginning of a paragraph, illustrate how a writer used a statement of significance followed by a list of key terms A bill of materials (BOM) is an essential part of every MRP plan.For each product ,the BOM lists each assembly,sub assembly,nut,and bolt. The next two sentences, also from the beginning of a paragraph, illustrate how a writer used a definition followed by a list of key terms:
The assets of a business are the economic resources that it uses.These resources Include cash, accounts receivable equipment building land supplies and
merge hand held for sale.
Use Preview Lists
Preview lists contain the key words to be used in the document. You can use lists in any writing situation to indicate organization. To make an effective list, you must understand the various list formats. The basic list has three components: an introductory sentence that ends in a “control” word, a colon, and a series of Items The control word (“process of in the sample below) names the items in the list and is followed.
by colon. The series of items is the list itself. The items in the list are in italics-in this sample:
Wood is machined by one of two basic processes or orthogonal cutting and peripheral milling. A more informal variation of the basic list has no colon, and the control word is the subject of the sentence. The list itself still comes at the end of the sentence. Here is an example The two basic machining processes for wood are or cutting and peripheral milling. Writers can present lists on the page in two ways: horizontally and vertically. In a horizontal list, the items follow the introductory’ sentence as part of the text; the examples above are horizontal lists. In vertical lists,
T he items are listed in a column, thus emphasizing the items in the list.Here is an example:
Wood is machined by one of these two basic processes:
Use Repetition and Sequencing
Repetition means restating key subject words or phrases Iron the prowler list; sequencing means placing the key words in the same order in the text as in the list. The author of the following paragraph first lists the three key terms – pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric. She repeats them at the start of each sentence in the same sequence as in the list. The power supply required to move the segments of the man can be of three types: pneumatic, hydraulics, and electric. Pneumatic power uses compressed air to supply power to certain components. It is usually used for lighter loads. Hydraulic power uses a compressed fluid for power and is usually used on heavier loads. Electric power is probably the most commonly used power source because it is easy to use and can handle most loads, light or heavy. The different kinds of power supply can be used on the same robot system. Set up list using key words Key words repeated at the beginning of each sentence
Use Structural Parallelism
Structural parallelism; means that each section of a document has the same organization. The following two paragraphs have the same structure first a definition, then a list of terms, then the definitions of the terms.
Job design defines the specific work tasks of an individual or Definition group. Job design focuses on four ideas: job scope, job depth, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Job scope involves List of terms the number and variety of tasks performed by the jobholder. Job depth is the amount of freedom that the jobholder has-to Terms defined plan and organize his work. Job enlargement gives a jobholder more tasks of a similar nature. Job enrichment increases both job scope and job depth. Adding responsibility is one of the most common ways of “enriching” a job.
Job analysis determines and,reports pertinent information related to the nature of a specific job. Job analysis produces both job descriptions and lob specifICations. A job description explains what the job is and what the duties, responsibilities, and general working conditions are. A job specification describes the qualifications that the jobholder must possess.
This chapter presents guidelines for writing effective sentences and paragraphs, and for revising sentences. In addition, the chapter presents guidelines for effectively organizing documents. These guidelines explain many skills you need to practice so that you have a repertoire. of strategies to use both as you write and as you revise. Two sentence strategies of particular importance are to use the active yoice and to avoid nominalizations. Following these two strategies alone will clarify much of your Writing.
A basic paragraph strategy is to place the topic sentence first and . follow it with relevant supporting details. To make your organization clear to the reader, develop strategies for clearly indicating organization, such as context-setting introductions, preview lists, repetition, and structural parallelism. In general, remember to place important material first both in sections and paragraphs .
The model that.follows exemplifies many of the devices explained in this chapter:
A LAYMAN’S GUIDE TO NETWORK BAFFLEGAB (A GLOSSARY)
The world of local area networks, like any other field that Is still young enough to be dominated by technologists, Is full of baffling vocabulary. Not to worry. It wasn’t so long ago that terms like “mainframe,” “microprocessor,” and “PBX” were equally mysterious. What follows will help you get up to speed in this technology and may even serve to impress your teenager (no mean trick these days).
The essential element in any network is the physical medium through which signals are transmitted. In local area networks, media are generally of three sorts: twisted pair, fiber optics, and coaxial cable. Twisted pair Is the medium used for conventional telephone systems. Each path comprises two thin copper wires twisted together to form a single strand. Fiber optics is a new technology that uses pulses of light transmitted through a thin strand of glass, instead of . pulses of electrical current transmitted through copper. Light waves can carry much more information than wires. Coax cable has been around for decades as the principal medium for transmitting TV signals over relatively short distances. If you have cable TV service at home, you know what this looks like. The amount of information that can pass through a given medium in a given amount of time – its capacity – is described as its bandwidth. This is usually measured in bits per second (bps) and given in magnitudes of thousands of bps (Kbps or kilo bits) or millions of bps (Mbps or megabits). Of the three media described in the preceding paragraph, twisted pair has the lowest bandwidth, optical the greatest. When coax cable is used, there are two transmission modes possible:
baseband and broadband. In base band transmission, the signals are imposed directly onto the medium, and the entire bandwidth of the cable is utilized for a single high-capacity channel. In the broadband mode, the cable’s bandwidth Is divided into a number of high-capacity channels enabling several transmissions to occur In parallel. Your cable TV service at home is a broadband system, which is why can tape one program while viewing another at the same time.
Dividing bandwidth into a number of channels is accomplished through a
process Called multiplexing. There are two techniques: frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TOM). In frequency division, the band width is split into several parallel paths defined by bands of wave frequencies that are usually measured in millions of cycles per second (abbreviated as MHz) .Look at the FM radio dial to see how this form of multiplexing is used to divide a single radio beam into several.”stations.” In time division, the entire bandwidth is used for every signal, but individual channels get into a queue, and each one has an allotted time slot to insert its signal into the sequence. The sequence is very short and is repeated very rapidly. It’s like several lanes of traffic merging in an orderly fashion into a single high-speed tunnel. When several communicating devices share a single channel (such as a group of terminals, each of which needs to access a computer only occasionally), there needs to be an access method which acts as the traffic cop. Two such major methods are “polling” and “random access.” In local area networks these are implemented, respectively, by techniques called token-passing and CSMN CD. Token-passing requires each device to wait its turn for a chance to use the channel. It knows when its turn comes because the network passes it a “token” in the form of a go-ahead signal. When it’s through with the channel, the token is passed to the next device in a pre-determined order. CSMNCD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Co llision Detect) is a more random method, but one which generally yields higher utilization of the channel. It requires each device to constantly “listen” to the channel and jump on any time no other device is using it.
If two devices jump on at exactly the same time (a collision), they both back off and re-try. It’s really an automated party line with “politeness” programmed into it. Most networks you’ve dealt with (such as AT&T’s long distance telephone system} simply provide a transmission path and leave the rest to you. There are other kinds of data networks, however, that start with “raw” transmission capacity and offer other things along with it, such as speed matching, error detection, and protocol conversion. By adding these valuable functions to straightforward transmission, they have become known as value added networks (VANs). GTE’s Telnet is one example of a nationwide VAN. Con tel Net is an example of a local area network with VAN characteristics. (Finney 28)
- In class, analyze the “Baffle gab” model organizational strategies. Also discuss the devices that make it interesting comparisons, examples brief narratives .
- Edit Hie following passage, both for typos and for effective presentation:
It has been brought to my attention by a few employees that there is a
communication gap among upper, middle and lower management to their employees. I personally went to discuss the situation. the effects that the communication gap has on the employees is a big problem. The lack of communication between the employees and managers is making many employees and unhappy wit their work. the workers have lower moral, bitterns to their managers and the attitude of “I don’t care.” Another factor is the turnover rate which has been increasing
in the last six months.
- Edit the following passages for effective presentation. Put key terms and
definitions first. a Rolling mills are very important. They are the equipment used to reduce the heated metal into various shapes. There are 3 common types that are used to form the ingots into blooms, billets, and slabs. These are the 2-high rolling mills, reversing and non reversing, and 3-high mills. The reversing action of the rollers allows the metal to be passed back and forth through the rollers, providing more deformation in a-shorter period of time. There are the 4-high rolling mills. They have two rollers with small diameters supported by two rollers with larger diameters. These mills are used to form wide plate and sheets of metal. The added support of the larger rollers prevents variation in the thickness of the metal as it passes through the small rollers. Planetary mills allow for grater reduction of the metal in one pass. Small rollers surround a large support roller, similar to roller bearing.
The metal is fed through the rollers at a much slower speed than other rolling
mills. feed control the speed of the metal and the finishing rollers remove any slight defects caused by the small rollers. The planetary mill is used to reduce thickness of plates of metal. Variations of the planetary mill are used to produce non flat shapes. These mills have grooved rollers which control the flow of metal and produce the desired shape. b. There are two different ways pouches are cooled depending on which 0f type of sterilization is used.
Where using the steam/air process a pre-cooling stage is used in which steam is condensed, and compressed air replaces steam pressure. Cooling water is the added to condensate after which it is circulated.
In using the water/air process there is no pre-cooling stage because steam
prsssure is not used in the process. Cooling water is circulated throughout the chamber cooling the pouches down. Once the pouches are cooled they are
removed from the sterilization chamber. The pouches then go through a custom built dryer to prevent water spots. In the following paragraphs, look for the strategies mentioned in this chapter. Were the strategies used well? A proposal is a longer report (usually several pages) that a department manager writes to her store manager or division manager. A department manager writes a proposal when she wants to request a major change in her department.
- For example, she has to write a proposal if she wants to remodel her entire
department because of the major expenses it would involve. Included in the
proposal are such things as sales figures previous to the change, a justification of how this proposed change will increase sales, and a pictorial plan of how the department will lock after the proposed change. A report is a fairly brief document (usually only a few pages) that a department manager writes to the store manager after a special promotional event. A special promotional event might be a fashion show, a beauty lab, a food fest, or something similar. The sections of the report describe the special event, what happened. how smoothly it went, and how it affected sales.
- In a professional periodical, read an article designed for experts. nalyzeit in terms of the Guidelines for Organizing Clearly (pp. 68-72). Photocopy one or two pages that contain several strategies. Describe these strategies in a brief (one- to two-page) article written for the newsletter of a professional student club. Your goal is to tell fellow students how experts explain themselves to other experts. From a technical encyclopedia in your field, photocopy a page that illustrates several” of the audience strategies explained on pp. 69-72. In
groups of three or four, read one another’s photocopies to and discuss the strategies; list them in order of frequency. Give an oral report of your findings to the class, or as a group, prepare a one-page memo of your findings for your teacher. In either case, use specific examples
- Form groups of to four: Choose a technical encyclopedia or a professional journal to investigate for writing style. Have each member bring to class a photocopy of a different page on a different topic. Analyze the sentences for frequency of the passive voice and for parallelism. Present a brief oral report of your findings to the class.
- You are a well-respected expert in your field. Your friend, an editor of a popular (not scholarly) magazine, has asked you to write an article describing basic terms in a new development in your field. Write a two or three-page article, using the “Bafflegab” model (pp. 74-75) as a guide. In class, write a description of a process commonly used in your field. Use three or four of the strategies named in the Guidelines for Organizing Clearly (pp. 68-70). Name each strategy in the margin of your paper.
Here are a few sample topics; however, if you are familiar with a different process, use it .
Finney, Paul R. “A Layman’s Guide to Network Bafflegab (A Glossary).” Technology July 1983:28.
Marotta, Carl D. “The Vital Role That Sealants Play in Medical Device Packaging.” Packaging Technology Dec. 1981:12-14.
Mulcahy, Patricia. “Writing Ryder-Based Instructions: Strategies to Build Coherence.”The Technical Writing Teacher 15.3 (1988): 234-243. Slater, Wayne H. “Current Theory and Research on What Constitutes Readable Expository Text.” The Technical Writing Teacher 15.3 (1988): 195-206.