In addition to being familiar with guidelines for clear sentences and paragraphs, you should follow guidelines for clarifying your organization to your reader. These guidelines allow you to write readable documents that steer readers effortlessly through the topic. These strategies help almost all readers, especially those who are less knowledgeable or who are distant from the writer in the company structure. To clarify your organization:

Use context-setting introductions
Place important material first

Use preview lists
Use repetition and sequencing
Use structural parallelism

Use Context-Setting Introductions

Your introduction should supply an overall framework so that the reader can grasp the later details that explain and fill it. You can use an introduction to orient readers to the contents of the document in one of three ways: to define terms, to tell why you are writing, and to tell the document’s purpose .

Define Terms

You can include definitions of key terms and concepts, especially if you are describing a machine or a process.

Training is the process of preparing an individual to perform in a certain manner in a predictable situation. The training process has four steps: needs assessment, program development delivery and.evaluation.

Tell Why You Are Writing

Although you know why you are writing, the reader often does not. To orient the reader to your topic, mention the cause of your writing. This method works well in memos and business letters, The following is a good start:

At our recent committee meeting, you raised a number of questions about our new word processors. I couldn’t answer all your questions then, but I have checked with our computer personnel, and I can now provide you with the information you requested.

State the purpose of the document

The purpose of the document
means what the document will do for the reader. In the following oneparagraph
introduction, the last two sentences state the purpose.

Although adhesive bonding is a basic function of form filial seal (f/f/s) packaging, it
is usually the least understood element of the package. Adhesives playar vital
role in medical-device packaging today. They not only maintain package integrity
but also make possible the physical combining of a wide variety of protective
materials. In flffs packaging, adhesion must be achieved in line with a number of
other packaging operations, some of which are not always conducive to good
. seals. This article will discuss the role played by adhesives or sealants. It y .:’
characterize their behavior in different types of packages at various stages 01
package formation and use. (Marotta 12)

Place Important Material First

The beginning of a section or a paragraph is an emphatic .spot, Placing important material first emphasizes its importance. This strategy orients readers quickly and gives them a context so that they know what to look for as they read further. Put statements of significance, ‘definitions, and key terms at the beginning. The following two sentences, from the beginning of a paragraph, illustrate how a writer used a statement of significance followed by a list of key terms A bill of materials (BOM) is an essential part of every MRP plan.For each product ,the BOM lists each assembly,sub assembly,nut,and bolt. The next two sentences, also from the beginning of a paragraph, illustrate how a writer used a definition followed by a list of key terms:
The assets of a business are the economic resources that it uses.These resources Include cash, accounts receivable equipment building land supplies and
merge hand  held for sale.

Use Preview Lists

Preview lists contain the key words to be used in the document. You can use lists in any writing situation to indicate organization. To make an effective list, you must understand the various list formats. The basic list has three components: an introductory sentence that ends in a “control” word, a colon, and a series of Items The control word (“process of in the sample below) names the items in the list and is followed.
by colon. The series of items is the list itself. The items in the list are in italics-in this sample:

Wood is machined by one of two basic processes or orthogonal cutting and peripheral milling.  A more informal variation of the basic list has no colon, and the control word is the subject of the sentence. The list itself still comes at the end of the sentence. Here is an example The two basic machining processes for wood are or  cutting and peripheral milling. Writers can present lists on the page in two ways: horizontally and vertically. In a horizontal list, the items follow the introductory’ sentence as part of the text; the examples above are horizontal lists. In vertical lists,

T he items are listed in a column, thus emphasizing the items in the list.Here is an example:

Wood is machined by one of these two basic processes:
orthogonal cutting
peripheral milling

Use Repetition and Sequencing

Repetition means restating key subject words or phrases Iron the prowler list; sequencing means placing the key words in the same order in the text as in the list. The author of the following paragraph first lists the three key terms – pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric. She repeats them at the start of each sentence in the same sequence as in the list.  The power supply required to move the segments of the man  can be of three types: pneumatic, hydraulics, and electric. Pneumatic power uses compressed air to supply power to certain components. It is usually used for lighter loads. Hydraulic power uses a compressed fluid for power and is usually used on heavier loads. Electric power is probably the most commonly used power source because it is easy to use and can handle most loads, light or heavy. The different kinds of power supply can be used on the same robot system. Set up list using key words Key words repeated at the  beginning of each sentence

Use Structural Parallelism 

Structural parallelism; means that each section of a document has the same organization. The following two paragraphs have the same structure first a definition, then a list of terms, then the definitions of the terms.


Job design defines the specific work tasks of an individual or Definition group. Job design focuses on four ideas: job scope, job depth, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Job scope involves List of terms the number and variety of tasks performed by the jobholder. Job depth is the amount of freedom that the jobholder has-to Terms defined plan and organize his work. Job enlargement gives a jobholder more tasks of a similar nature. Job enrichment increases both job scope and job depth. Adding responsibility is one of the most common ways of “enriching” a job.


Job analysis determines and,reports pertinent information related to the nature of a specific job. Job analysis produces both job descriptions and lob specifICations. A job description explains what the job is and what the duties, responsibilities, and general working conditions are. A job specification describes the qualifications that the jobholder must possess.


This chapter presents guidelines for writing effective sentences and paragraphs, and for revising sentences. In addition, the chapter presents guidelines for effectively organizing documents. These guidelines explain many skills you need to practice so that you have a repertoire. of strategies to use both as you write and as you revise. Two sentence strategies of particular importance are to use the active yoice and to avoid nominalizations. Following these two strategies alone will clarify much of your Writing.

A basic paragraph strategy is to place the topic sentence first and . follow it with relevant supporting details. To make your organization clear to the reader, develop strategies for clearly indicating organization, such as context-setting introductions, preview lists, repetition, and structural parallelism. In general, remember to place important material first both in sections and paragraphs .


The model that.follows exemplifies many of the devices explained in this chapter:


The world of local area networks, like any other field that Is still young enough to be dominated by technologists, Is full of baffling vocabulary. Not to worry. It wasn’t so long ago that terms like “mainframe,” “microprocessor,” and “PBX” were equally mysterious. What follows will help you get up to speed in this technology and may even serve to impress your teenager (no mean trick these days).

The essential element in any network is the physical medium through which signals are transmitted. In local area networks, media are generally of three sorts: twisted pair, fiber optics, and coaxial cable. Twisted pair Is the medium used for conventional telephone systems. Each path comprises two thin copper wires twisted together to form a single strand. Fiber optics is a new technology that uses pulses of light transmitted through a thin strand of glass, instead of . pulses of electrical current transmitted through copper. Light waves can carry much more information than wires. Coax cable has been around for decades as the principal medium for transmitting TV signals over relatively short distances. If you have cable TV service at home, you know what this looks like.  The amount of information that can pass through a given medium in a given amount of time – its capacity – is described as its bandwidth. This is usually measured in bits per second (bps) and given in magnitudes of thousands of bps (Kbps or kilo bits) or millions of bps (Mbps or megabits). Of the three media described in the preceding paragraph, twisted pair has the lowest bandwidth, optical  the greatest. When coax cable is used, there are two transmission modes possible:
baseband and broadband. In base band transmission, the signals are imposed directly onto the medium, and the entire bandwidth of the cable is utilized for a single high-capacity channel. In the broadband mode, the cable’s bandwidth Is divided into a number of high-capacity channels enabling several transmissions to occur In parallel. Your cable TV service at home is a broadband system, which is why can tape one program while viewing another at the same time.

Dividing bandwidth into a number of channels is accomplished through a
process Called multiplexing. There are two techniques: frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TOM). In frequency division, the band width is split into several parallel paths defined by bands of wave frequencies that are usually measured in millions of cycles per second (abbreviated as MHz)  .Look at the FM radio dial to see how this form of multiplexing is used to divide a single radio beam into several.”stations.” In time division, the entire bandwidth is used for every signal, but individual channels get into a queue, and each one has an allotted time slot to insert its signal into the sequence. The sequence is very short and is repeated very rapidly. It’s like several lanes of traffic merging in an orderly fashion into a single high-speed tunnel. When several communicating devices share a single channel (such as a group of terminals, each of which needs to access a computer only occasionally), there needs to be an access method which acts as the traffic cop. Two such major methods are “polling” and “random access.” In local area networks these are implemented, respectively, by techniques called token-passing and CSMN CD. Token-passing requires each device to wait its turn for a chance to use the channel. It knows when its turn comes because the network passes it a “token” in the form of a go-ahead signal. When it’s through with the channel, the token is passed to the next device in a pre-determined order. CSMNCD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Co llision Detect) is a more random method, but one which generally yields higher utilization of the channel. It requires each device to constantly “listen” to the channel and jump on any time no other device is using it.

If two devices jump on at exactly the same time (a collision), they both back off and re-try. It’s really an automated party line with “politeness” programmed into it. Most networks you’ve dealt with (such as AT&T’s long distance telephone system} simply provide a transmission path and leave the rest to you. There are other kinds of data networks, however, that start with “raw” transmission capacity and offer other things along with it, such as speed matching, error detection, and protocol conversion. By adding these valuable functions to straightforward transmission, they have become known as value added networks (VANs). GTE’s Telnet is one example of a nationwide VAN. Con tel Net is an example of a local area network with VAN characteristics. (Finney 28)


  1. In class, analyze the “Baffle gab” model organizational strategies. Also discuss the devices that make it interesting  comparisons, examples brief narratives .
  2. Edit Hie following passage, both for typos and for effective presentation:
    It has been brought to my attention by a few employees that there is a
    communication gap among upper, middle and lower management to their employees. I personally went to discuss the situation. the effects that the communication gap has on the employees is a big problem. The lack of communication between the employees and managers is making many employees and unhappy wit their work. the workers have lower moral, bitterns to their managers and the attitude of “I don’t care.” Another factor is the turnover rate which has been increasing
    in the last six months.
  3. Edit the following passages for effective presentation. Put key terms and
    definitions first. a Rolling mills are very important. They are the equipment used to reduce the heated metal into various shapes. There are 3 common types that are used to form the ingots into blooms, billets, and slabs. These are the 2-high rolling mills, reversing and non reversing, and 3-high mills. The reversing action of the rollers allows the metal to be passed back and forth through the rollers, providing more deformation in a-shorter period of time. There are the 4-high rolling mills. They have two rollers with small diameters supported by two rollers with larger diameters. These mills are used to form wide plate and sheets of metal. The added support of the larger rollers prevents variation in the thickness of the metal as it passes through the small rollers. Planetary mills allow for grater reduction of the metal in one pass. Small rollers surround a large support roller, similar to roller bearing.
    The metal is fed through the rollers at a much slower speed than other rolling
    mills.  feed  control the speed of the metal and the finishing rollers remove any slight  defects caused by the small rollers. The planetary mill is used to reduce  thickness of plates of metal. Variations of the planetary mill are used to produce non flat shapes. These mills have grooved rollers which control the flow of metal and produce the desired shape. b. There are two different ways pouches are cooled depending on which 0f type of sterilization is used.
    Where using  the steam/air process a pre-cooling stage is used in which steam is condensed, and compressed air replaces steam pressure. Cooling water is the added to condensate after which it is circulated.
    In using the water/air process there is no pre-cooling stage because steam
    prsssure is not used in the process. Cooling water is circulated throughout the chamber cooling the pouches down. Once the pouches are cooled they are
    removed from the sterilization chamber. The pouches then go through a custom built dryer to prevent water spots. In the following paragraphs, look for the strategies mentioned in this chapter. Were the strategies used well? A proposal is a longer report (usually several pages) that a department  manager writes to her store manager or division manager. A department manager writes a proposal when she wants to request a major change in her department.
  4. For example, she has to write a proposal if she wants to remodel her entire
    department because of the major expenses it would involve. Included in the
    proposal are such things as sales figures previous to the change, a justification of how this proposed change will increase sales, and a pictorial plan of how the department will lock after the proposed change. A report is a fairly brief document (usually only a few pages) that a department manager writes to the store manager after a special promotional event. A special promotional event might be a fashion show, a beauty lab, a food fest, or something similar. The sections of the report describe the special event, what happened. how smoothly it went, and how it affected sales.
  5. In a professional periodical, read an article designed for experts.  nalyzeit in terms of the Guidelines for Organizing Clearly (pp. 68-72). Photocopy one or two pages that contain several strategies. Describe these strategies  in a brief (one- to two-page) article written for the newsletter of a professional student club. Your goal is to tell fellow students how experts explain themselves to other experts. From a technical encyclopedia in your field, photocopy a page that illustrates several” of the audience strategies explained on pp. 69-72. In
    groups of three or four, read one another’s photocopies to  and discuss the strategies; list them in order of frequency. Give an oral report of your findings to the class, or as a group, prepare a one-page memo of  your findings for your teacher. In either case, use specific examples
  6. Form groups of to four: Choose a technical encyclopedia or a professional journal to investigate for writing style. Have each member bring to class a photocopy of a different page on a different topic. Analyze the sentences for frequency of the passive voice and for parallelism. Present a brief oral report of your findings to the class.


  1. You are a well-respected expert in your field. Your friend, an editor of a popular (not scholarly) magazine, has asked you to write an article describing basic terms in a new development in your field. Write a two or three-page article, using the “Bafflegab” model (pp. 74-75) as a guide. In class, write a description of a process commonly used in your field. Use three or four of the strategies named in the Guidelines for Organizing Clearly (pp. 68-70). Name each strategy in the margin of your paper.

Here are a few sample topics; however, if you are familiar with a different  process, use it .



Finney, Paul R. “A Layman’s Guide to Network Bafflegab (A Glossary).”  Technology July 1983:28.
Marotta, Carl D. “The Vital Role That Sealants Play in Medical Device Packaging.” Packaging Technology Dec. 1981:12-14.
Mulcahy, Patricia. “Writing Ryder-Based Instructions: Strategies to Build  Coherence.”The Technical Writing Teacher 15.3 (1988): 234-243. Slater, Wayne H. “Current Theory and Research on What Constitutes Readable Expository Text.” The Technical Writing Teacher 15.3 (1988): 195-206.



As you revise drafts, you should look for language that might cause confusion and make your writing harder to grasp. The following section will help you develop an awareness of many constructions that cause imprecise difficult-to-read sentences. Although you may produce some of these constructions in your early drafts, you must learn to identify and change them.

Avoid Strings of Choppy “Sentences”

Choppiness results from a string of short sentences. Since each idea appears as an independent sentence, the effect of such a string is to make all the ideas seem equal to one another. As a consequence, the writing does not clearly emphasize the important ideas. The remedy for this problem is  to combine and subordinate ideas so that only the important ones are expressed. as main clauses

Choppy The bowl is made from stainless steel. This material makes it lightweight and durable. The weight of the bowl is four pounds. The use of stainless steel also allows for easy Cleaning. Clear Because the bowl is made from stainless steel, it is durable easy to.clean, and lightweight – only four pounds.

Avoid Wordiness

Generally ideas are most effective when they are expressed concisely. This guideline does not mean that you should write sentences in telegram style with all the short words deleted. But it does mean that you should eliminate all excess wording. Watch especially for redundancy, unnecessary intensifiers (such as “very”), unnecessary repetition, unnecessary subordinate  unnecessary prepositional phrases.

Unnecessary  subordinate clause Revised Two important concepts that go along with this field are inventory control and marketing. Two important concepts in this field are inventory control and marketing. Redundant It is made of very thin glass that is milky white in color. intensifiers plus unnecessary subordinate clause
Revised It is made of thin, milky white glass.  Unnecessary repetition Tools can be classified into two general categories and be broken down further within these categories. The categories are hand tools and power tools. Revised Tools can be classified Into two categories: hand and power tools. Redundant The tuning handle is a metal protrusion that can be easily grasped hold of by the hand to turn the gears.  Revised The tuning handle is a metal protrusion that can be easily grasped to turn the gears. , Unnecessary repetition plus  overuse of prepositions Revised

The lead weight arms sit on each side of the specimen holder and can be broken down into two parts. The two parts of the arms are the abrading discs and the weights.   The lead weight arms, located on each side holder, have two parts: the abrading discs and the weights.

Avoid Redundant Phrases

Since redundancy is such a common problem; here is a list of some common redundancies and their corrections:

Redundant phrase  due to the fact that employed the use of basic fundamentals completely eliminate alternative choices  actual experience the ason is because connected together final-result prove conclusively  in as few words as possible More concise word or phrase because used fundamentals eliminate alternatives  experience the reason is that connected result prove  concisely

Avoid Abstract and General’ Terms

 Given a choice between abstract, highly technical words and simple, concrete,specific words conveying the same meaning, always choose the concrete
ones. If you must use a potentially confusing word, define it. Avoid jargon, the specialized language used and understood within a department or discipline, in reports to audiences who are distant or less knowledgeable.

Avoid or immediately clarify general terms (such as excessive, numerous, and frequently) and words of judgment (such as effective, mediocre, and significant). Specific words tell the reader far more.

Use There Are Sparingly

Overuse of the indefinite phrase there are (and its many related forms, there is, there will be, and so on) causes weak sentences .because the effect is to bury the subject in the middle of the sentence. Most sentences ‘are more effective if the subject is paced first.


Use there ardor emphasis or to.avoid the verb exists. Weaker No easy answers exist.
Strong~ There are no- easy answers;

Avoid Nominalizations

Avoid using too many nominalizations  verbs turned into nouns by adding a suffix such as  Nominalizations weaken sentences by presenting the action as a static noun rather than as an active verb. Learn to find the true action in your sentences and express it with strong verbs

Static Research showed the division of  products into biodegradable and non biodegradable substances.  Active Research showed that we can divide waste products into biodegradable and non biodegradable substances Static Determination of this percentage figure calls for an canalization of various errors and failures that occurred in planned purchases and in allowances on merchandise given to employees.

Active Deft mine this percentage figure by analyzing the errors that  in planned purchases and in a Allowances on merchandise given to employees.

Avoid Noun Clusters

Noun clusters are three or more nouns joined in a phrase. They crop up everywhere in technical writing and usually make reading difficult. Try to break them up.

Noun duster Allowing individualized input variance of data process entry will result in higher  the keyboarders. Revised We will have higher morale how allow the keyboarders to enter data at their own rate.

Use You Correctly

Do not use you in formal reports (although writers often use you in informal ports). Use you to mean lithe reader it should not mean “anyone”
or ‘1.”

Incorrect I took the training course so that you could experience the problems firsthand. I took the training course so that I could experience the problems firsthand.

Incorrect The quality of performance, that is the amount of quality you can have and still remain competitive, is very important. Correct The quality of performance, that is, the amount of quality a company can enforce, and still remain competitive, is very important.

Avoid Sexist Language


 Language is considered sexist when pronouns indicate only one sex when both are intended. Careful writers rewrite sentences to avoid usages that are both insensitive and, in most cases, inaccurate, Several strategies will help you write smooth, nonsexist sentences. Avoid such clumsy phrases as Ire/she or she. An occasional he or site is acceptable, but a number of them .in a short space destroys the sense of a.passage. Sexist The clerk must make sure that he· punches in.

Revise by using The clerk must make sure to punch in. an infinitive Revise by using The clerks must make sure that they punch in the plural


Passive Sentences Make the following passive sentences active.

  1. Watar from the storage drum is sent to the working drum leaving some water in the storage drum.
  2. Keeping a desired over pressure is accomplished by using a pressure drop control valve.
  3. When the display has been noted and is no longer needed, press the RlS button to proceed with the program.
  4. Test s are specified in the military’s purchasing documents for the pouched meals  they include 27 dimensional checks on pouches.
  5. Recently, it was determined that the purchase of a personal computer was needed.

Parallel Stracture

Revise the following sentences, making their coordinate elements parallel.

  1. It serves the purpose of pulling the sheet off the coil and to straighten or guide the sheet through the rest of the machine.
  2. The two main functions of the tractor are supplying the necessary power’ to pull the load and to provide steering to guide the vehicle.
  3. The seven steps in selling are (1) opening, ~2) present merchandise, (3) handling, (4) to complete the sale, (5) suggesting, (6) record made of the
    sale, (7) finalize sale.
  4. The student will be changing saw blades frequently for two main reasons: because of dull blades, and the need for special blades for different
    cutting operations.
  5. The features that favor the Johnson receiver include more durability, better noise reduction and it is more efficient.


              Eliminate the choppiness in the following sentences.

  1. The impellers are jam free. They pivot on a turntable. Their name implies their shape. It is like blades of a rotor.
  2. This world man is named Sue Jones. She is twenty-five years old. She forty pounds overweight.
  3. The taste test is important in food development. The test is run by lab technicians. The technicians are supervised by a sensory evaluate.


               Revise the following sentences, removing unnecessary words.

  1. The contracts also have a couple of special clauses to each one of them.
  2. The soldering pencil, which is held the same way that a pencil is held, is much easier to control.
  3. In caring for your blender, you should remember to care for it like you would any other electrical appliance.
  4. When preparing the fabric it is wise to clean and treat the fabric, depending on the type of fabric, in the same manner as the finished garment would be cleaned, to remove this residue.
  5. The plate is supported again by a thick wire that extends down into a connecting pin in the base, and the exact position of the pin is the pin next to the notch in the base.

Use of There

(Ire Eliminate there are, or any related form, from the following sentences.

  1. There ;!e six basic requirements that blister material must fulfill.
  2. Before you start to sew with the machine, there are a few  steps in which one mayor should follow.
  3. With more shops being installed, there should be more traffic generated.
  4. There claims made by both companies that their computers are easy to learn to use.
  5. There are twenty-two different sizes of containers that lie in this capacity


Correct the’ nominalizations in the following sentences.

  1. The capacity for an operator, in one day, for reconditioning plugs, is about 400.
  2. For a successful business the satisfaction of the customer’s needs at a profit must be done by the company.
  3. The two workers accomplished the division of the material into two piles.
  4. The process we use to accomplish these objectives is through the concise description of limitations, the investigation of alternatives and the
    establishment of communication channels.
  5. Avoidance of tooling costs is accomplished if you pick a stock size.

Use of You

              Correct the use of you in the following sentences.

  1.  The operator of the grain spout can maneuver it to deliver grain anywhere in the barge hold. You adjust the spout to compensate for changes in
    water level.
  2. The Document Data is also an integrated program, controlled by menus and commands. However, your flow control is poor.
  3. In the microwave the aluminum heats up the oil and pops the popcorn. This process is where you get your increase in efficiency because you are using the heat to pop the popcorn.

Sexist Language

Correct the sexist language in the following sentences.

  1. Each manager will direct his division’s budget.
  2. Every secretary will hand in her time card on Friday.
  3. If he understands the process, the machinist can improve production.
  4. Each supervisor will present his/her budget to his/her vice-president at a
    meeting which s/he schedules.
  5. We  each employee that she must fin out a W-4 form.




A paragraph consists of several sentences introduced by a topic sentence. The topic sentence expresses the paragraph’s central idea and the remaining sentences develop, explain, and support the central idea. You should generally place the topic sentence first and structure paragraphs coherently, making each sentence expand on the idea of the topic sentence.

Put the Topic Sentence First

In technical writing, almost all paragraphs begin with a to c sentence, followed by several sentences that explain its central idea. Researchers have discovered that readers comprehend a paragraph more quickly if the. general or topic idea is placed first (Slater). This structure, called deductive, gives your paragraphs the direct, straightforward style preferred by most report readers. To follow this guideline,’ state the central idea of each paragraph in a topic sentence at the beginning of a paragraph. Then follow with details that support and clarify the central idea, as in this example:

Assembly drawings are drawings that  portray and explain the Topic sentence completely fabricated final product. Assemblies are drawn on a larQe sheet of paper. They generally have two or three Supporting details views that relate all the information ;n the part to the reader. The assembly also explains different parts of the drawing through the bill of materials, a listing of all the different parts that make up the entire piece. It gives the costs, quantity, and a description of each part. The assembly drawings relay a basic overview of the entire product.

Structure ;Paragraphs Coherently

Coherent structure means that each sentence’ amplifies the point of the topic sentence. You achieve coherence by the words you choose and by the way you place sentences in paragraphs. You can indicate coherence by using words in four ways: by repeating terms, by placing key terms in the dominant position, by indicating class or membership, and by’ using transitions
(Mulcahy 237).

Repeat Ter~s

Repeat terms in order to emphasize them. In the following example, “path” is repeated in the second sentence in order to provide further details. Because fluid doesn’t compress, its only path is between the gears and the housing. This path is least resistant  it allows the fluid to flow in that direction easily. Use the Dominant Position Placing terms in the dominant position means to repeat a key term as the subject  or main idea  of a sentence. In the following short paragraph, “contrast” is the dominant term.

Contrast is one of the most important concepts in black-and white printmaking. Soft contrast, just a range of grays, is used to portray a calm effect, such as a fluffy kitten.  contrast, on the other hand, creates sharp blacks and bright whites. It is used for dramatic effects, such as striking portraits. “Contrast” always in dominant position
Maintain Class or Member Relationships To indicate class or membership relationships, use words that show that the subsequent sentences are sub parts of the topic sentence. In the following sentences, “store management” and “merchandising” are members of the class “career paths.” Retailing has two career paths. Store management involves working in the store itself. Merchandising involves working in the buying office. Provide Transitions Using transitions means connecting sentences by using words that indicate a sequence or a pattern. Common examples are


Arrange Sentences by Level You can also develop coherence by the way you place sentences in a paragraph. III almost all technical paragraphs, each sentence has a level. The first level is the topic sentence. The second level consists of sentences that support or explain the topic sentence. The third level consists of sentences that develop one of the second level ideas. Four sentences, for example, could have several different

Relationships. For instance, the last three could all expand the idea in the first:

1First level
2’Second level
3 Second level
4 Second level

Or sentences 3 and 4 could expand on sentence 2, which in turn expands
on sentence 1:
1  First level
2 Second level
3 Third Level
4 Third level

As you write, evaluate the level of each sentence. You can do this by deciding if the idea in the sentence is  a subdivision of the topic, or if it is level 3, providing details about a subdivision. Consider this example: (1)T9 develop an MRP program, our only investment will be two IBM printers. (2) One will be accessed by the line foreman for planning and controlling  orders. (3) The second printer will be used by the marketing, and sales staff for customer orders. (4) The two printers will cost $1,000 each, plus a setup fee of $500, totaling $2,500

The sentences of this paragraph have this structure:

To develop an MRP program, our only investment will be two IBM  pr,inters.
Level 2 One will be accessed by the line foreman for planning and controlling production orders.
Level 2 The second printer will be used by the marketing and sales staff for customer orders.
Level 2 The two printers will cost $1,000 each, plus a setup fee of $500, totaling $2,500.




As you generate your drafts, keep in mind several guidelines that will help you write clear sentences. Remember to use normal word order, write sentences of 12 to 25 words, use the active voice, use parallelism, and place.
the main idea first.

Use Normal Word Order

The normal word order in English is subject-verb-object. That order usually produces the clearest, most concise sentences, If you change the order, you
emphasize the parts of the sentence that are ‘out of place, but often your  sentence is just wordy.

Clear     Dietitians write memos to doctors. Wordy  Memos to doctors are kinds of writing done by dietitians .
Write Sentences of 12 to 25 Words

An easy-to-read sentence is 12 to 25 words long. Shorter or longer sentences are weaker because they become too simple or too complicated. This rule, however, is only a rule of thumb. Longer sentences, especially those  containing a parallel construction, can be easy to grasp.

Low-margin merchandise that is sole at discount operations like Bulls eye, Quirk stop, and Germs consists of items that retailers buy in large quantities so that the company can afford to sell the products to consumers at prices that are substantially
reduced. Low-margin merchandise consists of items that retailers buy in large quantities to sell at substantially reduced prices. This merchandise is sold at discount operations like Bulls eye quick stop  or terms.

Use the Active Voice

The active voice (“I understand it”) is more direct than the passive voice (“It was understood by me”). The active voice allows you to write natural, direct, and concise sentences; it places the emphasis on the performer of the action rather than on the receiver. When the subject acts, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject js acted upon, the verb is in the passive voice. Notice that you can write the same sentence in either the active or passive voice

Active An insulator surrounds the electrode. Passive The electrode is surrounded by an insulator. Change Passive to Active To change a verb from the passive to the active voice, follow these guidelines:

  • Move the person acting out of a prepositional phrase.
    Passive The memo was sent by the manager.
    Active The manager sent the memo.
  • Supply a subject (a person or an agent).
    Passive    Any loose bubbles can be detected in this way.
    Active     You can detect any loose bubbles in this way.
    Active     The worke can detect any loose bubbles in this way.
  • Substitute an active verb for a passive one.
    Passive   The heated water is sent into the chamber.
    Active     The heated water flows into the chamber.

‘use the Passive If It Is Accurate The passive voice is sometimes more accurate; for instance, to show that a situation is typical, or usual: Effective passive The robot is used in repetitive activities.  needs no agent Active verb adds Companies use robots in repetitive activities. an unnecessary agent (companies) The passive voice can also be used to emphasize a certain word: Use passive 10 The ink is forced through the stencil by a squeegee. emphasize ink Use active to A squeegee forces the ink through the stencil. emphasize squeegee.

Use Parallel Structure

Using parallel structure means using similar structure for similar elements Careful writers use parallel structure for coordinate elements  elements

with equal value in a sentence. Coordinate elements are connected by coordinating
conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so)”or are items in a series  words, phrases, or clauses~If coordinate elements in a sentence do not have a parallel pattern, the sentence becomes awkward and confusing.

Faulty Management guarantee. that the old system will be replaced and to consider (fie new proposal.
Parallel Management guarantees that the old system will be replaced and that the new proposal will be considered.
Faulty Use the cylinder with a diameter of 33/,6 inches and 1’/2 inches high.
Parallel Use the cylinder with a diameter of 3 3/,6 inches and a.height
of 1% inches.
Use the cylinder that has a diameter of :13/,6 “inches and a height of 1% inches.
Faulty A successful firm is capable of manufacturing a product,
marketing it, and make a profit.
Parallel A successful firm is capable of manufacturing a product marketing it, and making a profit.

Put the Main Idea First

Place the sentence’s main idea – its subject  first. When you do so, you provide context for what follows. Notice the difference between the following two sentences, In the first, the main idea, “three pieces of equipment,” comes near the’end. The sentence is difficult to understand. In the second, the main idea is stated first making the rest of the sentence easier to grasp.

A heaving line, which is a coiled line or rope, a heaving jug, which is a plastic container such as a milk or bleach bottle with a half-inch of water in it to give it buoyancy and a line Qr rope connected to the jug, and a ring buoy and line are three pieces of equipment used to tow victims to shore. Main idea is last Three pieces of equipment used to tow a victims to shore are a heaving line, which is a coiled line or rope; a heaving jug,  which is a plastic container such as a milk or bleach bottle with a hall-inch of water in it to give it buoyancy and with a line or rope attached; and a ring buoy and line. Main idea is first.


Technical Writing Style

Technical Writing Style


T0 communicate well through your writing, you need to develop a clear, smooth style. While developing such a style will take time and practice, it will be well worth your while. You will especially help yourself if you understand what to do as you create drafts and what to look for as you revise drafts. In other words, you must develop standards by which to judge your own writing. This chapter explains those
standards. ).S you internalize them, your prose will become much clearer.  The following sections present guidelines for writing clear sentences and paragraphs, for revising for clarity, and for organizing clearly.