This section :presents several types of internal proposals. The examples that follow demonstrate ways to handle the assigned proposal and the unsolicited  proposal.

The Assigned Proposal
The model that begins reflects an assignment that a student completed during his internship at a company It has three parts introduction including a summary, a description of the actual system, and .in explanation how the proposed solution meets preset criteria.a table and a layout – reinforce the writer’s points.

In the introduction the author explains that he has been assigned the project. He also explains. what he did to become credible in the situation an-. briefly discusses his proposal. In the criteria and summary sections,  he notes that his solution will fulfill the five criteria that have been agreed upon for the situation. In the discussion section, or the body, the author describes the new machine and explains how it meets all the criteria, Notice how the author uses visual aids throughout to communicate his ideas.

This report is a response to your request for a proposal from the production department on ways to increase productivity at work station 128. After speaking with a number of staff members, I recommend adding another numerical control (NC) lathe to work station 128. The machine we have chosen is the Stamford MR 7000. This report covers two main.areas: a description of the new lathe and an
explanation of how it meets the criteria.

The following criteria were set at a meeting of the management group in March:

  • Total cost not to exceed $200,000
  • Payback period of one year
  • Productivity increased be 20% at work station 128
  • Vulnerability at work station 128 reduced
  • Implementation time of eight weeks

This report shows that the machine we propose to purchase will meet all the

  • Total.cost of adding another machine-is $182,000
    New lathe – $150,000.
    Additional hardware- $15,000
  • Cost of labor to install- $17,000..
  • Payback period of one year
  • Increase in productivity of 20% at work station 128
  • Reduced vulnerability
  • Implementation time of six weeks

The discussion segment’ of this report shows how the proposed solution will increase productivity at work station 128. This section describes the new Achernar and its advantages, discusses how the machine meets all five criteria and also explains why we rejected the other alternatives. The five criteria are spend in:) allowance, payback period, increase in productivity, reduced vulnerability and  implementation time.

The New NC Lathe Description of Machine, The new NC lathe recommended by the production department is the Stamford MR 7000. The machine Incapable of computerized numerical control (CNC) the operator can program an operation right at the machine location via a keyboard. It is a five-axis machine that handle the complex tooling required at work station 128. It has a turret-type 01 mount on either side of the bed ways. Each turret is capable of holding to tools, which
gives the machine Q total holding capacity of eight .

Advantages of New Lathe. The existing NC lathe does not have the capabilities of this new one, which might have more features than we need. But owing t”l the present technology and pressure from our competitors; we feel we are forced to buy a slightly overqualified machine. However, if future demand requires increased capability at work station 128, we will be able to handle it. If there is a need at any time for the R & D department to experiment with the tooling capabilities of this machine, they many do so after the second shift when the demand for time is not feet.

How the Solution Meets the Criteria Spelling Allowance. The spending allowance allocated for this project is $200,000. This figure covers everything from acquisition to implementation. The total cost to purchase and install a new NC lathe is $182,000 broken down as follows.

  • cost of new machine – $150,000
  • cost of additional hardware -.515,000
  • cost of labor to Install – $17~000

Explanation of Cost
” The cost of additional hardware needed for the installation of the lathe IS$15,000.
The hardware is needed to “marry” the new lathe to the existing one. The proposed
setup will allow one person to operate both lathes. Thus we will not need any additional labor The additional hardware needed consists of 20 feet of conveyor track, all new tooling required for the new lathe, and a new switching unit to alternate the  of machinable parts coming into the work station  The labor cost ‘required to install the additional hardware plus the new lathe is $17,000. This figure is based on a total of 720 hours of labor at $24 per hour (includes’benefits). We feel it would take a three-person crew a total of six weeks to install the new system. Tasks include hooking’ up the hydraulic and electrical systems, plus installing the actual hardware.



Work Station Layout
Period The payback period required by the criteria was one year. Because the new lathe will increase production at no additional labor cost, we feel t this one-year deadline The $182,000 cost of new machine is a fixed cost. Any additional costs w II be from maintenance  from the energy required to operate it. The sales rep  these costs at around $150 per month. The machine has a  one-year on parts and labor.If we achieve a 20% increase in productivity, and if all other costs presently incurred.by production increase at this same rate (which is unlikely), we can expect a 20% increase in net earnings from sales. Our present net earnings from this product line are $920,000 per year. The new machine, therefore, has the potential to increase our net earnings from $920,000 to $1,104,000 the first year, an Increase of $184,000. Thus the payback period for the new machine would be 52 weeks (see Figure 2). This 52-week figure does not take into account our tax deduction from interest and depreciation on capital goods. If these figures are taken into account, our payback would be even sooner.

Increase in Productivity
The 20% increase In productivity due to the addition of a lathe at work station
128 justifies the cost o’f the new machine. The increase in productivity parallels


Payback Period
an increase in net earnings of at least 20%. Our profit from the increased productivity would not be seen until after the machine has been paid for, as shown by Figure 2. After that  however, we wilt make a profit. The increase in productivity can be seen by the man machine chart. Note that the station stilt needs only one operator. .


Reduced Vulnerability
Because of its increase in productivity, work station 128 wilt be less vulnerable to slowing down production. Furthermore, having two machines is like having a ba  system. If one lathe breaks down, the other can still be producing parts,production would decrease.

Implementation Time
Implementation time, as set in the criteria, is eight weeks or less. We are confident
. that the total time required to purchase and install the lathe is six weeks. The vendor states a two-week delivery time. After the lathe is here, we would require an additional four weeks to install the machine and put it into operation.1

The Unsolicited Proposal
In the following proposal. a student is bringing a problem that he has  Periclean to till’ attention of the lab supervisors. He assumes that the  are of the problem. The proposal has an introductory section discussion, and two visual aids. Notice that the reader knows the proposed solution by the end of the second paragraph.  The introduction has .two sections. First, the writer explains the  his credibility he h,15 worked in the lab in the role of the person it was  for. Second, he names the problem, tells immediately how much the will cost. and  how his solution will answer the problem. In the body of the proposal, the writer outlines the problem in one section, his solution in the next and the method of implementation in the  last. He accompanies his proposal with two visual aids, one that depicts the new layout he proposes and the other a table of costs. Throughout the report, the writer anticipate questions and objections. He has obviously done his homework as demonstrated by ‘the layout and cost table. Unless a major difficulty arises from some other source, the solution could be implemented easily.

As a student who uses the software development computers in Roem 214, I see a problem with the arrangement of the computer terminals in the existing work area. This problem will be further magnified with the arrival of the new computer terminals expected for January 1990. The cost to implement a more efficient layout would be less than $60.
I suggest that the software development computers and their clustered computer terminals be arranged as shown in the following layout  This layout is designed to eliminate the existing problems of the inefficient arrangement of the computer terminals and blocked access to the printer.
The existing layout of the software development computers is very inefficient. During peak use of the development computers, only five out of the six terminals can be used. The computer terminal located in the corner of the work area is blocked off whenever people use the computer terminals on each side of it. If this computer terminal were used, people would be on top of each other an uncomfortable situation that discourages people from using it. I have heard fellow classmates and instructors Copland about all the terminals being in use when in  fact the terminal in the corner of the work area was free.With the existing layout, the printer location also creates a problem. The position of the printer now is just above one of the computer terminals. This location is very inconvenient for both the person using the computer terminal and the one using the printer. This inconvenience happens quite regularly because there is only one printer to service all the computer terminals. The problem with overcrowding will only worsen if the same arrangement is kept when the new computer terminals arrive.

To eliminate the problem of inefficient use of the computer area’, the enclosed plan for a new layout should be implemented. This layout includes the four new terminals that will be acquired by the university for January 1990. The area just to the right of the doorway is the proposed new work area, an area chosen because
fe w people sit there during class periods. This expanded area, along with the old area, will give ample room for the computer terminals. This layout will also.1

free space for the printer, making it more accessible and increasing the. amount
of paper that it can hold. This solution will also make the repair of main development computers easier.

Implementation concerns focus on cost, material, and labor.

Cost. The new less than $60. The only cost involved would  be for female and male computer cable connectors. A total of four female connectors and four male connectors would be needed to complete the proposed layout. comparison of computer connector costs from benders used by the university. The other materials needed. as described in the next section, will not cause any additional expense to the university since they come from materials the university already has on hand.

Material. The existing materials  the work area would be used – except for the work bench. The work bench would have to be removed and used elsewhere, perhaps to the electronic repair shop ( The long table for the new work area is presently stereo in the electronic repair shop; the five dividers can be obtained from the Electronics Department or from the university’s warehouse. The needed cable for the computer terminals is available in the electronic repair shop.

Labor. Student employees from the electronic repair shop can supply the labor. These students are very knowledgeable about how the software development computers function and would have no problems in implement the layout plans suggested in Figure 1. These students would also assemble the different
lengths of cables with the connectors that would be purchased .


Proposals convince the reader to allow the writer to solve a problem or perform some activity. External proposals arc used to convince one company to buy another company’s services or products. Written to respond to a client’s needs, external proposals explain the service or product offered in the technical section, review the firm’s credentials and abilities in the management section and list the costs in the financial section. Internal proposals report on assigned problems or on unsolicited solutions  problems. Usually such proposals attempt to answer four questions: What is the problem? What is the solution? Should we implement the solution (justification)? Can we implement the solution (implementation)? Writers of proposals must care consider the audience’s knowledge level and authority. A visual aid commonly found in proposals is the  chart, which illiterates the components of a schedule.


Who will receive this proposal? Who will decide on the recommendations in this proposal? How much do they know about the topic? Prepare background. Why did the proposal project come into existence? Select a format formal or informal, Prepare a style sheet of margins, headings, page numbers, and visual aid captions.o External Proposal  Write a statement of the customer’s needs. Prepare a matrix (2-column listing – see p. 294) of the customer’s needs and the features of your proposal, In the written sections, do you present your tea lures III terms 01
the customer’s needs – using the customer’s terminology? Are the financial details clearly explained? . Do you explain in detail why your   has the expertise to do the job? .[J Internal Proposal  Was the report assigned, or is it an unsolicited proposal? Outline your methodology for investigating the problem Decide lobe level of detail you will need to explain the problem. Prepare ‘:a list of the dimensions of the problem and show how your proposed solution eliminates each item (this list is the basis for your benefits section). Prepare a schedule for implementation. List rejected alternatives, and in one sentence tell why you rejected them.


A solicited proposal in an informal format follows:





1. Rewrite the following paragraph. The writer is a product designer; the  reader is the head of manufacturing. The proposal suggests the use of plastic as the casing material for a flashlight. The purpose of this section is to show that plastic meets the criterion of “availability.” Eliminate all unnecessary sentences .

One of the first things that many designers ask when initially considering the use of a particular material is whether the material is on hand. It is not wise to use a proprietary material that is available only from one supplier if it is likely that the product in question will be made again in five years. If you are a captive buyer, you are at the mercy of the supplier on cost and delivery. Sometimes a raw material fabrication technique may limit availability. As an example, it is not common to get delivery times of 60 weeks on special forgings. In lean times castings may be obtained in 4 weeks; other times delivery times can be 12 weeks. These are all important factors under the category of availability. I have checked with several potential plastic suppliers (AVW Plastics Inc. and Jasper Plastic Supply) within our area and they seem to be able to handle what our production demands, and they can deliver it when we desire. 2. Rewrite the following paragraphs. Use the two figures and the table as a basis for your discussion. The writer is an area supervisor who has

discovered the problem; the reader is the layout supervisor of the printing company. The,project is to produce guest checks for a restaurant by cutting the. checks from a large sheet of paper and then printing them. Your instructor might also assign you to write an introduction and summary to make this a brief informal report. Problem The problem with the present process is that it wastes paper. The cutoff on the printing press being used is permanently set at 17 inches. The problem gets worse when  he printed pages must be cut, perforated, padded, and then cut again. The first cuts are irregular (Figure 1), which means the paper cutter must be reset after each cut. After the cut you are left with four stacks of paper, which must be further processed as mentioned above.


Positioning the forms as indicated in g a 21-inch roll of paper instead of 22 inches will waste less paper (Table 1). Even though only 10 instead of 11 checks can be positioned on a page,this method wastes less paper and makes processing easier. Only one initial cut would be needed before perforating, padding, and final cutting. There would also be only two stacks to handle instead of the current four stacks.


The proposed process would maximize profits by reducing paper waste (Table 1). The changed layout would also reduce the time of further processing on the guest checks (Table 1). There would also be less wear and tear on the paper cutter since only one initial cut instead of four is needed.

3. Rewrite the following two sections. Use the two figures ..The writer is the departjncnt manager the reader is the merchandise manager. The writer has covered a need: the department should expand because its sales have exceeded all previous peaks. The background is that six months earlier the department added several brand name clothing lines. The new lines have drawn in more customers than expected.


Profits. Profits will increase dramatically with the new expansion of the department. Because of the additional brand-name clothing we implemented, our sales have shown a noticeable increase in the past year. With the added space, our sales volume could reach an additional profit. A new expansion of the twice the extra space to display more of the merchandise that is. selling. For example, the brand TUTA is a growing category. If, by chance, we can expand our line of TUTA merchandise, we can create what is known. as multiple purchases. Multiple purchases are defined as a customer buying an additional  item besides the intended purchase. For example, a customer may purchases TUTA shirt; however, on the way to the register, she notices a TUTA belt and the new merchandise. Our department willcarry, for example, TUTA pants, shirts, socks, belts, and hats. We will also carry such brand names as Tex,  Arrowhead, Zach’s, and  We will attract many customers who may  same age bracket, yet have different tastes (see  Each customer has her own unique taste; with the extended department of various vendors, we can please each one of them. Breaching other customers,  help to increase profits profits are a result of the additional new customers and their purchases.


1. Write a proposal in which you suggest a solution to a problem. Explain the problem and solution. Show how the solution meets established criteria or how it is beneficial in terms of the dimensions of the problem. Explain cost and implementation. J! necessary, describe the personnel who will carry out the proposal. Explain why you rejected other solutions. Use at least two visual aids in your text. Base the proposal on factual data and make it convincing. Your instructor will assign either an informal or a formal format. Topics for the assignment could include a problem that you have worked on (and perhaps solved) at a job or a problem that has arisen on campus, perhaps involving a student organization.


Use the Introduction to Orient the Reader
The introduction to a proposal needs careful thought. The introduction must orient the reader to the writer, the problem. and the solution. The introduction can contain one paragraph or several. The following are important points to clarify.

  • W,hy is the writer writing? Is the proposal assigned or unsolicited?
  • Why is the writer credible?
  • What is the problem?
  • What is the background of the problem?
  • What is t~e significance of the problem?
  • What is the solution?
  • What are the parts’ of the report?

Introductory sections often contain a separate summary paragraph that restates the main points of the body. The summary is a one-to-one miniaturization of the body. (Be careful not to make the summary a background; background belongs In a separate section.) If the body contains sections on the solution, benefits, cost, implementation, and rejected ‘alternatives  the summary should cover the same points. This usually appears after the context-setting paragraph that answers the questions listed above. Remember, a proposal is not a murder mystery. Readers should know the basic facts after reading the introduction and the summary. The audience does not want to wait until the end to discover your solution and reasons.
Sample introductions to an assigned’ proposal and an unsolicited proposal


On April 24, you requested that I review our present manufacturing Reason for writing  capabilities in an attempt to identify inefficient production facilities. In wrong so, I have found that we manufacture Methodology a product that is available from a more efficient source. I am proposing ti!at we purchase the A-100 wiring harness Proposal from a supplier rather than manufacture it in our plant. The information in this report will enable you to make this purchasing’ Purpose decision.


A new technology – desktop publishing – has made it possible to create pages of graphics and text directly on a computer. The staff of the Clarion is interested in setting up an electronic publishing system that would allow us to layout the paper on our computers and to produce a master copy ready for mass production. This memo will describe the hardware and software we need, how it works, and how it can save Hastings Publishers, Inc., a lot of money.

Use the Discussion to Convince-Your Audience
The discussion section contains all the detailed information that you must present to convince the audience. A common approach functions this way:

The problem

  • Explanation of the problem
  • Causes of the problem
    The solution
  • Details of the solution
  • Benefits of the solution
  • Ways in which the solution satisfy criteria
    The context
  • Schedule for implementing the solution
  • Personnel involved
  • Solutions rejected

In each section, present the material clearly; introduce visual aids whenever  possible; and use headings and subheadings-to enhance page layout.Which sections to use depends on the situation. Sometimes you will need an elaborate implementation section sometimes you won’t Sometimes you should discuss causes, sometimes not. If the audience needs ‘the information in the section, include it otherwise don’t.


The goal of a proposal is to convince the person or group in authority to r allow the writer to implement his or her idea. To achieve this goal, the writer must consider the audience, use visual aids, understand organizational principles, and design a format.

Consider the Audience
Writers consider the audience of a proposal in at least three ways; according to their involvement, their knowledge, and their authority.

How Involved Is the Audience? • In most cases, readers of a proposal either have assigned the proposal and are aware of the problem, or they have not assigned the proposal and are unaware of the problem. For example suppose a problem develops with a particular assembly line. The production engineer in charge might assign a subordinate to investigate the situation “and recommend a solution. In this assigned proposal, the writer does not have to establish that the problem is a problem; but he or she does’ have to show how the proposal will solve the problem. More often,  however, the audience does not assign’ the proposal. For instance, a man larger could become aware that a new arrangement of her floor space could create better sales potential. If she decides to propose a rearrangement, she must, in a situation like this, first convince her audience – her supervisor – that the problem is a problem, and then offer a convincing solution.

How Knowledgeable Is the Audience? The audience mayor may not know the concepts and facts involved in either the problem or the solution. You must learn to estimate the level of knowledge that your audience possesses. If the .audience is less knowledgeable, take care to define terms, give background, and use common examples or analogies.

 How Much Authority Docs the Audience Have? The audience may or may not be able to order implementation of your proposed solution. A manager might assign the writer to investigate problems with the material flow of a particular product line, but most likely the manager will have to take the proposal to a higher authority before it is approved. So the writer must bear in mind the multiple readers who may see-and approve (or reject) the proposal.

Consider Your Own Position
Your position mirrors the audience’s position. You either will have been assigned to write the proposal or will have discovered the problem or need yourself. In case, you don’t are to establish that the problem is a problem, but ) our do have to show how your proposed solution matches the dimensions or the problem. In the second case, you have to establish’  that “the problem is a problem and then explain your solution.

]Use Visual Aids
Since the proposal probably will have multiple-audiences, visual aids can enhance its impact, Visuals can support any part of the proposal  the problem, the solution, the implementation, the benefits. In addition to the tables and graphs described .


the reader can see the project’s entire schedule. See Figure 14.1 for an example of a  chart. Diagrams Many kinds of diagrams, such as flow charts, block diagrams, organization  charts, and decision trees, will enhance a proposal.Layouts, for instance, are effective for proposals that suggest rearranging space. A good example of a layout is  In that proposal the layout simplifies the writer’s job by communicating complicated details.

Organizing the Proposal
The writer should  the proposal around four questions:
1. What is the problem?
2. What is the solution?
3. Can the solution be implemented?
4. Should the solution be implemented?

What Is the Problem? Describing the problem is a key part of many proposals. You mus: establish three things about the problem:

The data are the actual facts! that a person can perceive. The significance implies off from a standard you hope to maintain, To explain the significance of the problem, you show that the current situation has negative effects on productivity or puts you in an undesirable position. The  problem.itself. If you can incriminate the cause, you will eliminate the negative effects. To be credible, you must show that you have investigated  the problem thoroughly by talking to the right people, looking at the right records, making the right inspection, showing the appropriate data, or whatever. In the following section from a proposal, the writer describes a problem.

The current problem in Junior Sportswear is a 20% decrease in sales over the past 1989 year. In 1988,sales averaged Data $30,000 per month and contributed 10% to total store sales. In 1989, sales averaged $24,000 per month, and contribution only 7% to total store sales. The cause 0  the decrease in sales can be traced to the display fixtures. The current wall mixtures and 5-loot bar racks do not let us call attention to special merchandise at the department entrance. The wall fixtures line the back and side walls of the department; their position makes It difficult to  capture the attention of customers walking past. barefoot racks hold the merchandise sideways in mass quantities, and make it impossible to show the legislatures and . colors of the new merchandise.

The current ·placement and setup of fixtures do not allow the customer traffic pattern to flow through the merchandise  from the front to the back 01 the department. Nor do customers ave enough room to step back and view the merchandise.

The mixtures that are now in the department are made 01 wood and molded plastic. These materials do not blend in with the sleek and modern “hi-tech” image of the department. The fixtures also do not utilize the available 2300 square feet of selling space to its  sales potential. Currently 300 square are wasted by the placement 01 the 5-loot bar racks in straight lines, Cause of problem    of each aspect of the problem
Solution explained

What Is the Solution? To explain the solution, explain each of its parts. Explain hew your solution will eliminate the cause,” thus eliminating whatever is out of step with the standard you hope to maintain. If the problem is causing an undesirable condition, say a high percentage of damaged parts, then the solution must show how the condition can be eliminated. If the .old layout of a department in a store is not attracting customers, then the writer must show how the new layout will.

The solution that I propose is to replace the current fixtures with black and silver chrome T-stands, spirals, and waterfall fixtures. We could still make use of the wall fixtures and transfer the 5-loot bar racks to the Athletic Sports wear department. With the new fixtures, we should be able to attract more customers into the department and display the merchandise to optimum advantage.

Can the Solution Be Implemented? The writer must show that all the systems involved in the proposal can be put into effect. To make this clear to the audience, you would explain the cost  the effect on personnel the schedule for implementing the changes This section may be difficult to write because it is difficult to be certain about what the audience needs to know.

Cost of Implementation
The purchase cost of the new fixtures is $112800, 3S shown in Table 1. Total cost of the project, including $1080 for installation, is $2208.00.

Cost of Fixtures and Installation


We can purchase the fixtures iron our vendor,  the can fill our order Within two weeks. The reconfiguration will take three days and will cost $1 J80. Day 1 – Empty wall racks; place merchandise in storeroom Maintenance crew removes wall fixtures and fills holes in the walls. Day 2 – Painters paint all walls  (The color, sandstone, will match the carpet used throughout the Sportswear depart ? Day 3 – Install fixtures; place clothing on them.   Schedule  During these three days, the department will operate at reduced capacity for a day and a half. Salespeople will help empty and fill the racks. One salesperson will take three vacation days, and the part-time help will not be scheduled.

Effect on personnel Should the Solution Be Implemented? Just because you call implement the solution docs not mean that you should, To convince someone that you should be allowed to implement your solution, you must demonstrate either that the solution has benefits that make it desirable or that it the established criteria in the situation, or both. In an unsolicited proposal, you will find it easier to demonstrate benefits after you have carefully defined the problem. When you are assigned a proposal, concentrate on showing how the solution fits the given problem. In the following section, the writer pinpoints the benefits of the proposed solution, stressing how it will eliminate the negative aspects of the situation.

Benefits of the Solution

By replacing the fixtures, we can place the new merchandise near the department entrance to.draw in customers, They will be able to.see special styles, details, and colors of the merchandise. The customers will also.be led through a flow pattern by the proper placement of the new fixtures. The new fixtures will tie together the over hi-tech theme of  the Junior Sportswear department. Using this theme is important: it helps make the target customer more excited about shopping and more inclined to.make purchases. The new fixtures also.will benefit the department by Increasing the amount of merchandise carried. We can carry a wider and more current selection to.attract a broader customer base. With the addition of new lines, customer sales will increase.

Designing the Proposal
To design a proposal, select an appropriate format, either A formal proposal will have a title page, table of contents, and sum   The format for an informal proposal can be a memo report or some kind of reprinted form  The format depends on company policy and on the distance that the proposal must travel in the hierarchy, Usually the shorter the distance, the more informal the format. Also the less significant the proposal, the more informal the for mat. For instance you would not send an elaborately formatted proposal to your immediate superior to suggest a $50 solution to·a layout problem.



The internal proposal is a common writing assignment in business and industry. Like the external proposal, it is written to persuade someone to accept an idea – usually to change something or to fund something, or both. Covering a wide range of subjects, internal proposals may request  new pieces of lab equipment, defend major capital expenditures, suggest adding more departments to a store, or recommend revised production control standards. The rest of this chapter explains the internal proposal’s audiences, visual aids, and design, and presents three different forms of informal proposals.



To write an external proposal, follow the form for writing proposals. The four main parts of a proposal Me an executive summary, and the technical. managerial. and financial selections.

Writing the Executive Summary
The executioner ” contains information designed to convince executives that the proposers should receive the contract. In a lengthy external proposal, this summary might be 10 to 15 pages long, summarizing 11 the sections in lay, not technical, terms. Often these summaries read like magazine articles, artfully designed, to sell the proposal. In  external proposals, this section should be a proportional reduction if thc body (see Chapter 6). It should present the contents of the technical, managerial, and financial sections in clear terms. This section is often designed to make  nontechnical people feel comfortable with the proposal.

Writing the Technical Section

A proposal’s technical section begins by stating the problem to be solved. The proposers must. clearly demonstrate that they understand what the customer. The proposal should describe its  to solving the problem  present a preliminary design for the product if one is receded. Sometimes the firm offers alternative methods for solving problem and  invites the proposal writer to select one. For instance, in the compute.network example above, the proposal might explain three different .  that  needs  differently but :still 15  within the $15,000 maximum cost.

Writing. the Management Section
The management section describes the personnel who will work directly on the project. The customer wants to know that the project will receive top priority, and the’ proposal writer must respond by’ explaining what technical-personnel and levels of management will be responsible for the project’s success. In a large external proposal, this section often contains organization charts and resumes. In a short proposal, this section usually explains qualifications of personnel; the firm’s success with other similar projects; and its willingness to service the product, provide technical assistance, and train employees. This section also includes a schedule for, the project sometimes with deadlines for phases of the project.

Waiting the Financial Section
The financial section provides a breakdown of the costs for every item in the proposal. Often this section is not just a table of costs. At times a brief introduction and the table may be all you need, but if you need to explain the source or significance of certain figures, then do so. Beloved is the financial section from a brief external proposal. A complete exurban proposal appears on pp. 314-317

The cost of the total Go Smooth system is $59.00. The breakdown of cost is shown in Table 1. The price of this Go Smooth system is $200.00 less than Fillmore’s Electronic Drive and.$175.00 less than Anderson’s Variable System.

Component Cost Breakdown of Go Smooth Speed Control


The system package can be shipped by April 24, 1988 our representative in Torrance can install it at a minimum charge, or your plant technicians can do It
with assembly instructions.


To write an external proposal, you must  your audience, research the situation, use visual aids, and follow the usual form for this type of document.

Consider the Audience
The audience for a proposal consist of potential customers. These customers know that they have a need, and they have it general idea of how to fill that need. Usually they will have expressed their problem to you in a written statement (an RFP), or in an interview. You must assess their technical awareness and write accordingly. ‘Generally a committee will make the decision of whether or not to accept your proposal. you must write so that they all understand your proposal. To write to them effectively you should.

  • Address each need they have expressed .
  • Explain in clear terms how your proposal fills their needs .
  • Explain the relevance of technicai data.

For instance, if you wish to sell a computer system to a nonprofit arts organization, you cannot just drop code names for microprocessors – say an 8020 chip – and expect them 10 know what that means. You need to explain the data so that the people who make the decision to commit their money will feel comfortable.

Research the Situation
To write the proposal effectively you must clearly understand your customer’s needs as well as your own product Qr service. Your goal is to show how your product’s features will fill the customer’s needs. You must research their needs by means of interviewing them or by reading their printed material. Make “P you understand exactly what they want. . Writers devise different ways to develop their research on the client’s needs and the features their product offers. To relate needs and features, manay writers compile a two-column table. The following table shows how one firm decided how to fill the needs of a client


Once you establish the needs, you can easily point out a reasonable
method of fulfilling them. This research requires careful preparation.
Use Visual Aids
M.lIlY types of visual aids may be appropriate to your proposal. Tables
might summarize costs and technical features. Maps (or layouts) of the

<ituation, for instance, might show where you will install the work station
and the electrical lines in the office complex. Illustrations of the product
with callouts can point out special features. Your ~o<ll, remember, is to
convince the decision makers that your way is the best; good visuals arc
direct and dramatic, drawing your client into the document.


A firm writes external proposals to win contracts for work. Government agencies and large and small corporations issue a Request for Proposal (RFP), which explains the project and lists its specifications precisely. For example, a major aircraft company, such as British Airlines, often sends RFPs to several large firms to solicit proposals for a specific type of equipment, say, a guidance system. The RFP contains extremely detailed and comprehensive specifications, slating standards for minute technical items and pacifying the content, format, and deadline for the proposals.

Companies who receive the RFP write proposals to show how they will develop  the project. A team assembles a document that shows that the company has the managerial expertise, technical know-hew,’ and appropriate budget to develop the project. After receiving all the proposals, the firm that requested them turns them ov r to a team of elevators, some of whom helped write the original specifications. The elevators rate the proposals, judging the technical, management, and cost sections in order to select the best overall proposal.  Not all proposals are written to obtain commercial contracts. Proposals are also commonly written by state and local governments, public agencies, education, and industry. University professors often write proposals, bringing millions of dollars to campuses to support research in fields as varied as food spoilage and genetic research. Discussion  f a lengthy, 50- to 200-page- proposal is beyond the scope of this book; it is a subject for an entire course. But brief external proposals are very common. They require the same planning and contain the Same elements as a lengthy proposal. This section will illustrate the planning and elements of an external proposal.




.A proposal persuades its readers to accept the writer’s idea. There are two kinds of proposals: external and internal. In are external proposal, one firm responds to a   from another firm or the government  for a solution to a problem. Ranging from lengthy (100 pages or more) to short (4 to 5 pages), these documents secure contracts for firms. In an internal proposal, an employee or department urges someone, else in the company to accept an idea or to fund equipment or re-.
search. Internal proposals may be unsolicited or assigned.